On April 21, 1933, the Macon, $2.5 million in the making, left Akron, Ohio on its maiden voyage. The entire craft, 785 feet long, was approximately ten feet longer than the Graf Zeppelin.
Known officially as ZRS-5, the Macon was more modern and slightly faster than its sister ship, the Akron, ZRS-4, with a top speed of about 69.4 knots or 80 miles per hour.
To the bewilderment of some, the craft was named the Macon, after the largest city in the Georgia district of Rep. Carl Vinson, chairman of the House committee on Naval Affairs. To those on the East Coast, the naming was considered a politically prudent move.
The rigid airship was the product of the Goodyear-Zeppelin Co., a business jointly owned by the Zeppelin Company of Germany and the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company.
Unlike the blimps made by Goodyear today, the Macon had a structured duraluminum hull with three interior keels. The intent of the strong spine was to prevent a hull collapse that occurred with the Shenandoah when it was in a massive storm in the central United States. From the outside it looked and functioned much like a large blimp But on the inside, the ship was an open cavern of girders, cables and catwalks with few places where the crewmen could not go.
Before 1925, many lighter-than-air craft operated on hydrogen. But the flammability of the gas proved to be very dangerous, as would be demonstrated on May 6, 1937, in Lakehurst when fire would kill 36 people aboard the German zeppelin Hindenburg.
The Macon and Akron were kept aloft by non-flammable helium contained in 12 large gelatin-latex cells inside the craft. The ship carried a large supply of additional helium and navigators were able to set the craft's altitude by releasing or increasing the gas and ballast.
Inside the hull, the ship had eight large 560-horsepower gasoline powered Maybach reversible engines driving outside propellers, one of the craft's few noisy operations. The propellers could be rotated down or backwards to control the ship during take-off and landings.
The Macon had accommodations for 100 officers and men, including sleeping berths, a large mess room, a galley, and observation platforms at the nose and tail.
Although rigid airships were never used commercially in the United States, the key advantage to such a mode of transportation was said to be its smooth, silent motion and its speed in long-distance journeys. In short, people did not get seasick on dirigibles.
With nearly as much fanfare as marked the arrival of the Akron, the Macon cruised into the skies over Mountain View and Sunnyvale on Oct. 16, 1933, and docked without difficulty at its new home.
"The new 785-foot air giant...was free from the oil smudges that marred the Akron's appearance on its arrival here and seemed as silvery as if she had just taken to the air," noted a Palo Alto Times story.
During the next 16 months, the Macon, became a familiar and popular sight on the Peninsula, and never failed to draw large crowds whenever it took off or landed.
But there was much to be expected of this airship. A considerable amount had been spent on the construction of the Macon and Akron, and the country was in the middle of the Great Depression. People in and out of the military wanted results.
Almost immediately after arriving in Mountain View, the Macon was sent on maneuvers in the Pacific, but it was an inauspicious debut. During a mock battle, the ship was "shot down" twice in the first eight hours.
In 1934, Lt. Commander Herbert Wiley, one of three survivors of the Akron crash, took command of the Macon. Determined to prove the Macon's value, he quickly developed and improved the ship's long-range detection and scouting system.
To put the system to the test, the Macon left Moffett Field in July 1934 in an attempt to locate the cruiser Houston that was carrying President Roosevelt through the Panama Canal en route to Honolulu. Using only newspaper accounts of the president's departure time as a guide, the Macon raced 3,500 miles in 3� days to a spot in the vast Pacific Ocean where Wiley had determined they could find the Houston. They did.
Aboard the cruiser, crewmen were shocked to see two scouting airplanes, the Sparrowhawks, come out of nowhere and circle the ship. Minutes later the Macon dramatically descended from the clouded sky and dispatched a plane that dropped bundles of the previous day's newspaper from San Francisco, as well as postage stamps for the President's collection, (almost) onto the Houston.
The Fleet's admirals were not amused. Said Admiral Stanley, chief of naval operations, "We considered it a publicity stunt and that he (Wiley) had no business doing it." The president, however, was tickled. The stunt showed that the Macon was capable of the kind of scouting for which it was intended.
Men on the Flying Trapeze
Unlike other dirigibles of the time, the Macon was so massive that it also carried its own aircraft - five Sparrowhawk planes which were stored in the aircraft's hangar deck. The airplanes were released via a trapeze and a harness which lowered the planes through a T-shaped hangar opening in the Macon's underside.
Retrieving the planes, however was a much more difficult process. Like a performing air stunt, the pilots had to equal their speed to that of the ship and "catch" the trapeze with a hook at the top of the plane. The harness would then be attached to the fuselage, and the aircraft would be raised into the hangar deck.
Despite the difficulty of the maneuver, the pilots, known as the "Men on the Flying Trapeze" had a flawless record on both the Akron and Macon.
The ship also came equipped with another scouting oddity known as the "spy" car. A cable would lower the amusing-looking compartment from the airship to a point below cloud cover up to 1,000 feet. A crewman inside the spy car would then telephone back to the main control room relaying navigational information. The car acted as a sort of reverse periscope.
The Macon was built to be the chief scouts of the Pacific Fleet, providing long-range reconnaissance. In addition to providing protection for the "airship of the sky," the Sparrowhawks and the "spy" car were the ships' main eyes.
The Macon scouted for the Pacific Fleet eight times in all. But when the airship left Moffett Field on Feb. 11, 1935, to go on maneuvers off the coast of Southern California, repairs had not been completed to two tail fins that had been damaged several months earlier. Because of the need for the ship and the pressure to prove its value, Navy officials had decided to do the repair work piecemeal. Largely because of that decision, this would be the ship's 54th and final flight.
The next day, as the ship was returning from its successful mission, it encountered storm winds off Point Sur, south of Monterey. Suddenly, a crosswind struck the ship with such force that the upper fins of the previously damaged tail were completely severed, sending shards of metal into the rear gas cells.
In the control car, the steering wheel went slack and the navigators felt the tail drop. Wiley ordered the dumping of ballast and fuel. Crewmen hurried about the ship discharging everything they could to lighten the tail. Off-duty personnel were ordered to the nose to help bring that end down. But the ship was doomed. After rising to nearly 5,000 feet, the Macon began to fall.
Moments later the ship settled gently into the water, and the crew, clad in life jackets and equipped with life rafts - features that had not been available to many of those aboard the Akron - jumped into the water safely. Ships were quickly on the scene to pull the men out. A radioman was killed when he jumped from the falling ship, and another man was lost when he apparently tried to retrieve his belongings. But in all, 81 of the 83 aboard the Macon survived the crash, including "lucky" Wiley.
A commission set up to determine the cause of the ship's demise concluded that the blame belonged not to the crew, but to the Navy's refusal to repair the Macon's tail damage before it was sent on its ill-fated mission.
The disastrous record of airships put the pressure on President Roosevelt to abandon the costly lighter-than-air program. The president responded by setting up a second commission, this one headed by Stanford Professor William F. Durand, to look into the future of airships. The panel found that dirigibles had been used for purposes for which they were not intended and that they had not been given a fair opportunity to prove their value to the military. The commission concluded that these lighter-than-air craft should be given another chance.
They were not.
The Macon was the nation's last rigid airship.
While much attention was on Moffett Field's future at the turn of the decade, a small team of explorers was interested only in its past. Within days of the 1935 crash of the Macon off the California Coast near Point Sur, efforts were made to find the wreckage, but to no avail. In 1989, the Macon Expeditionary Group headed by Richard Sands of San Francisco, a former Navy pilot, renewed efforts to find the remains. Among those involved was David Packard, founder of the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, and Gordon Wiley, son of the Macon's skipper, Herbert V. Wiley.
Early efforts were unsuccessful. Their break came when Wiley's sister, Marie Wiley Ross, found a restaurant in Moss Landing north of Monterey that displayed a piece of metal the owners claimed came from the Macon. Ross immediately recognized its unique shape as having come from her fathers ship.
After some difficulty, the group was able to find the fisherman who had pulled up the two-foot piece of metal in his nets. Fortunately, he had kept meticulous fishing records.
"He told us that he had lost a whole lot of rigging at the one spot," Sands told the Peninsula Times Tribune in 1990. "He knew something was down there. He knew it was the Macon."
Armed with the new coordinates, a three-man crew of the Navy deep submersible, Sea Cliff, went in search of the Macon on June 24, 1990. Within 15 minutes, the search was over.
The explorers found the twisted remains of the world's largest aircraft on a sandy perch about 1,450 feet deep and about two miles south of the site of previous searches.
Among the twisted girders and gangways that comprised the skeleton-like interior of the rigid airship, the crew also found the remains of three of the Macon's Sparrowhawk fighter airplanes, their insignias still clearly visible.
The final resting place of the Macon was no longer in doubt. But, in the days ahead, the future of its home base would be.
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With the loss of the Macon also went the Navy's need for Sunnyvale Naval Air Station and Moffett Field.
On Oct. 25, 1935, just months after the demise of the Macon, the base was turned over to the War Department. Secretary of the War Department, George H. Dern announced that the Navy was trading Moffett Field to the U.S. Army in exchange for the Army's North Island field in San Diego.
Although Peninsula residents were saddened by the Navy's departure, the chambers of commerce along with the Peninsula welcomed the Army with open arms.
For the next three years the airfield became home for the 82nd Army Observation and the 9th Airbase Material squadrons. During this time, just one training blimp remained on the base, dwarfed within the cavernous Hangar One along with the Army's training aircraft.
In 1938, elements of the Army's 18th and 20th pursuit squadrons came to Moffett Field, and the base's population ballooned to 5,000 enlisted men and 300 officers.
Two years later, Moffett Field became the West Coast training center for the Army Air Corps, the predecessor to the U.S. Air Force. The purpose for Moffett Field now was to train Air Corps cadets.
In March 1941, probably the most famous of these cadets arrived at the airfield - actor James Stewart. He left less than a year later after being commissioned a second lieutenant. The actor eventually rose in rank to Major General in the Air Force Reserves.
During this period of greater use, a housing shortage grew so critical some enlisted men had to live in tents set up on the base. This situation necessitated the hasty construction of a series of wood buildings on the east side which became known affectionately as "Splinter City."
But all was to change by the events that occurred on Dec. 7, 1941.
After the attack on Pearl Harbor, U.S. military leaders became concerned that the West Coast lacked the kind of aircraft needed to patrol for submarines and mines. This duty was to fall to the U.S. Navy.
Even as the base remained under the jurisdiction of the Army, the Navy got to work rounding up some of the key personnel behind the old lighter-than-air aircraft program. Gradually they began to return to Moffett.
In January 1942, the first of many blimps to be based at Sunnyvale Air Station, Moffett Field arrived unassembled by train. Eleven days later the LTA (lighter-than-air) squadron, ZP-32, was commissioned and had the distinction of launching the first LTA patrol off the Pacific Coast in World War II.
LTA operations on the West Coast centered around the three main operating bases: Santa Ana, Moffett Field, and Tillamook. NAS Moffett Field was the first operational LTA air station to be established after hostilities began. The first squadron assigned to the West Coast was Airship Patrol Squadron 32 (later redesignated Blimp Squadron (ZP) 32). The squadron was established on January 31, 1942, at Sunnyvale.
A directive was signed by the CNO on December 29, 1941, authorizing the formation of ZP-32. Work began immediately on the airships TC-13 and 14 to make them fit for service and prepare them for transportation from NAS Lakehurst to Moffett Field. These two airships were the nucleus for ZP-32's operations. On January 7, 1942, Lieutenant Commander George F. Watson, the prospective commanding officer, left NAS Lakehurst headed for Moffett Field. Five days after his departure, 11 railroad cars loaded with the dismantled TC-13 and 14, plus spare parts, tools and miscellaneous gear followed. The first of these cars reached Moffett Field on January 24 and work on the TC-14 began the next day. The day after the squadron was established, the TC-14 made her first test flight. A week later, on February 8, the TC-13 was placed in service and flown by the squadron.
Six of these blimps were on hand on April 16, 1942, when the home of the Macon was officially recommissioned as U.S. Naval Air Station Sunnyvale.
Four days later it was renamed Naval Air Station, Moffett Field. Presiding over the ceremonies was the station's new commanding officer, Capt., D.M. Mackey, the man who had taken the first official order at the original 1933 commissioning of Moffett Field, logging in the now-famous command that concluded, "set the watches and pipe down."
The first mission for the TC-14 was on February 4 when she made a wartime patrol with other units of the Pacific fleet. On February 23, an enemy submarine flying off the coast of California shelled an oil field of Santa Barbara. ZP-32 sent the TC-14 to search for the submarine and to escort any merchant ships in the area. The airship flew from Moffett Field to Morro Bay and operated in the area on February 24. She escorted several tankers and searched for the submarine without any definite results. Even though the airship did not locate the submarine, the squadron was able to demonstrate its capability to respond to crisis situations.
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With the onset of war, Moffett Field was suddenly transformed from a base for training Air Corps cadets to the Naval Airship Training Command responsible for teaching personnel how to operate blimps.
Within months as many as 20 blimps were on duty at the base.
"The Santa Clara Valley is ideal for our lighter-than-air ships," said Rear Admiral John Greenslade, commandant of the Naval district in charge of the program. "Atmospheric conditions, terrain, proximity to other naval bases and nearness to desired areas for patrol as well a many other conditions make it the only place in the San Francisco Bay Area where a base should be placed."
The non-rigid airships as well as hydrogen filled Training balloons were regular sights at the base. The shadows cast by the silvery blimps were a far cry in size from the blackouts remembered from the days when the Macon passed overhead, but the blimps quickly proved their value. The great advantage to the airships was their ability to hover, drift and spot enemy craft and, like the Macon, they could maintain flight for long periods of time.
Unlike the massive dirigibles, the blimps were not equipped with Sparrowhawks. They were however, stocked with live carrier pigeons, which were used to dispatch messages from on high.
At the "lighter-than-air school", sailors learned everything from how to rig and pilot blimps to how to maintain them. Part of the sailors' training also was the care and feeding of the carrier pigeons.
In additions to training pilots, the LTA squadrons at Moffett Field were responsible for patrolling the Pacific coastline.
After the bombing of Pearl Harbor, the fear of a West Coast invasion was high. Air raid drills and blackouts were as common as false sightings of enemy ships off shore. The patrols of Moffett based crews played a critical role in easing the fears of a jittery public. Moffett�s record for ship and mine detection was flawless if not altogether eventful. The record of the blimp�s effectiveness in detouring submarines away from allied ships was outstanding. Not one allied ship was sunk by a submarine under the protection of blimps.
After the initial fear passed, the blimp pilots found a benefit of their patrols other than searching for ships that didn't exist. While scanning the Pacific Ocean, the blimp crews would spot schools of fish and report their locations to fishing fleets in San Francisco and Monterey. The activity became so popular that in January 1944, Moffett began holding official classes for pilots and crew on how to identify and recognize various schools of fish. These sightings were said to have saved fishermen much time and money.
During this time, Moffett Field had become the nation's only air base devoted exclusively to lighter-than-air aircraft.
The training for pilots was particularly intense. Before they could receive their official designation as a Naval Aviator (airship), aviation cadets had to first qualify as a pilot of free balloons. The massive interior of hangar One, 198 feet high, proved a valuable area for this kind of training in any kind of weather.
But even this monstrous structure was not sufficient to handle the demand for storage and training. In 1942, two more hangars were added to the base. Hangar Two was constructed in a rapid 372 days. Hangar Three went up in 208. Because of a wartime shortage of steel, they were primarily made of wood and concrete.
That same year Moffett Field became not only the place where blimp pilots were trained, but also where blimps were assembled. The vertical and horizontal fins and the elevators and rudders were manufactured. Moffett's newly established Assembly and Repair Department had the job of assembling, L-type and regular K-type airships. This would prove to be the peak of LTA production in U.S. history.
In mid-1942, the Navy designated Moffett a joint LTA and HTA (heavier than air) facility. At first the designation had little impact. But during the following two years, the HTA program grew as the LTA program began to decline.
In January 1944, the last airship arrived at Moffett for assembly. Two months later, Moffett graduated its last training class for pilots and crew. And in August 1947, a blimp went down off the Cape of Mendocino. No lives were lost, but it would be the last flight for the LTA program at Moffett.
That same month, the last blimp at Moffett Field was deflated.
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Thanks to Mr. Walter S. Carroll for the following history of the Moffett Field Chapel.
Although the history of Moffett Field dates back to 1933, it was not until April 1945 that the ground-breaking ceremonies for the chapel took place. Five months later, September 23, 1945, dedication ceremonies were conducted. Prior to this time, worship services were conducted in the Station Theater.
The chapel is patterned after the twenty-one California Missions and originally was designed with two offices to accommodate two chaplains and their yeomen. Two complete chapels are housed under the one roof. The main chapel seats 200 people. A small chapel, located directly behind the main one, is used for daily Catholic Mass and reservation of the Blessed Sacrament. With an ingenious revolving altar, first designed and used by the Seabees, the chapel is equipped to provide Protestant, Catholic, Jewish and non-denomination services by simply revolving the turntable which houses the appropriate settings.
In 1953, Chaplain Charles W. Adams started the ball rolling by collecting $500 in pennies to purchase the first stained glass window in the chapel. Chaplains George A. Wright, Joseph P. Cusack, and Joseph F. Geary continued to collect monies from personnel of the squadrons and units attached to Moffett Field to make possible the purchase of the remmaining eleven windows. At a cost of over $6,000, a story-in-glass of the faith, sacrifices and loyalty of the men and women of the Navy and Marine Corps was created. Squadron insignia were incorporated into each window as a memorial to individuals or squadrons. By September 1956 the windows were installed and formally dedicated.
Stained glass windows enhance the beauty of the chapel, as well as contribute to the worship experience. It was not until almost eight years after the chapel dedication that plans for replacing the plain, frosted windows with stained glass were begun. Cummings Studios of South San Francisco came up withe the design for each of the twelve windows.
The first window to be installed in the Chapel bears as its central motif the Mariners' Cross. The cross itself stands upon a stylized headland above the waves of the sea. This is symbolic of the firm establishment of the Cross of Christ above the viloence of the waves and the passions of mainkind. On either side of the Cross, we see the sun and the moon in subordinate positions. This, of course, is symbolic of our Lord's sway over all nature. The composition itself is placed upon a ruby medallion, the top and bottom of the medallion itself being shaped like the ribs of a ship.
In the base is the pilot's wheel, symbol of our Lord as our Leader and our Guide. While the central medallion and base varies in each window as to subject matter, the apex and border are constant and harmonious. The flanking dolphins are ancient symbols of our Lord, selected by the early Christians because of the dolphin's great friendship for humans in general and for distressed mariners in particular. At the apex of the window is the official naval insignia, while the border is composed of a turbulent wave-like motif, set off at the corners by golden stars and at the sides by the ancient naval and Christian symbol of hope, the anchor. This window was purchased by the Protestand Chapel Fund in June 1953.
Lamb of God
The second window on the Gospel Side portrays the "Lamb of God," our Lord, whose blood was shed for the redemption of the world. "Worthy is the Lamb that was slain to receive power, and riches, and wisdom, and strength, and honor, and glory, and blessing" (Revelation 5:12). The Lamb carries the banner of the Resurrection, symbolizing the Glorious and Immortal rising of Christ from the tomb. This is one of the most ancient of all Christian symbols.
The medallion at the base carries the insignia of Air Transport Squadron THREE (VR-3) and was given by squadron personnel in memory of shipmates who lost their lives in the line of duty.
Symbol of Christ
The Greek monogram composed of the letter "Chi" (X) and "Rho" (P) form the medallion subject of this window. These intertwined letters "XP," are the equivalents of our own Latin letter "CHR," the first three letters of the Greek "CHRISTOS" (XPICTOC), or "CHRIST." This monogram, like the "I.H.C" of the opposite window, was used on the early Christian tombs in the Roman catacombs in the first century and has been used ever since as the symbol of Christ, "the anointed one." The small medallion contains the insignia of Composite Squadron THREE, the sponsoring activity for this particular window, in honor of VC-3 personnel who lost their lives in the service of their country.
The initial chairman of the COMPRON THREE Chapel Window Fund, LTJG E. H. Tandy, USN, lost his life under tragic circumstances. His plane disapperaed near the California coastline after encountering difficulty on a routine training flight. Many friends, both civilian and military, contributed generously toward the window in honor of the memory of this outstanding young aviator.
Ship of the Church
The "Ship of the Church"
The "Ship of the Church" is an apt symbol for the Chapel. The ship, identified as the Church by the cross-bearing sail, is tossed on the sea of disbelief, worldliness, and persecution but finally reaches safe harbor with its cargo of human souls.
The striking, as well as symbolic, insignia of Fleet Aircraft Squadron TEN (FASRON 10) indicates their sponsorship of the memorial window.
Alpha and Omega
This window contains the famous "Alpha and Omega," taken from the Book of Revelation or Apocalypse of St. John. In the first chapter, our Lord, coming in clouds of glory, says, "I am the ALPHA and the OMEGA, the beginning and the end...who is and who was and who is coming, the Almighty."
The letters Alpha and Omega are the first and the last letter of the Greek alphabet, the beginning and the end, and as such are long established in Christian usage. The cross, rising between the letters, naturally represent our Lord Himself as the "first and the last," uncreated and eternal.
The small medallion in the base of the window contains the Papal Tiara and crossed keys of St. Peter, insignia of the Roman Catholic Church. Appropriately, this window was purchased by the Catholic Chapel Fund.
Star of David
This Old Testament window presents the "Mogen David," or "Shield of David" commonly called the "Star of David." It has been used for several centuries as a symbol of Israel and is found today as an integral part of the symbolic design in most of our synagogues.
The small base medallion contains the tablets of stone upon which the prophet Moses inscribed the Ten Commandments, the Law given him by God on Mount Sinai.
This window, carrying the design of a lighthouse, symbolizes the loving concern of Christ for the mariner and airman. The lighthouse stands upon storm-lashed rocks. Its beams shine out into the storm in the form of a cross of light, assuring spiritual comfort and safety to all those risking their lives for the protection of their country and loved ones.
The small medallion contains the insignia of Carrier Air Group FIFTEEN, the first fleet unit to sponsor a memorial window. The window was installed and dedicated in April of 1956, shortly before CAG-15 sailed for a routine tour of duty aboard a carrier operating in Western Pacific waters.
This window, bears a chalice and wafer emblematic of Christ's institution of the Lord's Supper or the Holy Eucharist: "This is my body...this is my Blood." The wafer of bread, the body of our Lord, hovers over the cup of wine, His blood.
The emblem of the United States Marine Corps proudly serves to indicate the sponsorship of this memorial window by Marine Corps personnel stationed at Moffett Field, who donated fifty cents each pay day to purchase a window.
Here we have one of the oldest and most venerable of all Christian symbols, the "I.H.C." (or "I.H.S."). Contrary to widespread popular belief, these letters do not stand for any pious motto or phrase. They are simply the first three letters of the name JESUS, in Greek, the old Greek "Iota" (O), "Eta" (E), and "Sigma" (C or S). Thus, in our Latin letters, the Greek name would appear as "IESOUS," or "JESUS." The "I.H.C." is simply our "IES," the letter "I" being used as our modern "J," which does not exist in Latin or Greek.
The Spartan helmet of Carrier Air Group NINETEEN may be seen in the medallion at the base of this memorial window. This memorial window was contributed by CAG-19 personnal as a memorial.
The Open Bible is a well-known Christian emblem whose meaning is almost universally understood. In our window, "The book" is surmounted by a tounge of flame, symbol of the inspiration of Holy Spirit, who hovered over the mindes and hearts of the Prophets and Evangelists. The two book-markers are symbolic of the Old and New Testamemts, the left marker containing the Star of David and the right marker the Greek emblem of the name Christ, the "Chi Rho."
Personnel of Air Transport Squadron FIVE, whose title also appears in the body of the insignia, contributed this lovely memorial window.
Cross and Crown
This window contains another venerable Christian symbol, the well-known Cross and Crown. This is the symbol of Victory or our Lord's triumph over Death and the powers of Evil. The crown has always been used as a symbol of victory, and its incorporation with the cross makes the meaning obvious.
The small medallion in the base of this window represents the mythical Phoenix rising from a funeral pyre. Legend has it that the Phoenix, feeling old age coming upon it, plunges itself into fire, rising triumphantly from the flame with youth renewed. The Phoenix and flame is used here as symbol of the Protestant Faith of the Reformation. This window was purchased by the Portestant Chapel Fund.
Here we see the ancient Menorah, the seven-branched candelabrum first memtioned in the Book of Exodus; "And thou shalt make a candlestick of pure gold: of beaten work shall the candlestick be made: his shaft, and his branches, his bowls, his knops, and his flowers, shall be of the same" (Exodus 25:31). The menorah is used to this day in the synagogue and is one of the best known of all Jewish symbols.
The small medallion in the base of the window contains a Scroll of the Torah, the Law contained in the Pentateuch: Genesis, Exodus. Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy.
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